Skip to main content

tv   The Civil War  CSPAN  December 29, 2014 8:00pm-8:51pm EST

8:00 pm
where he rose to the rank of major general, proposing to emancipate slaves to enlist them. this 50-minute talk is part of a series organized by the tennessee civil war ses question centennial commission. >> i will use my big voice to get everyone rounded back up for next part of the program. in franklin, talking about the battle of franklin, the battle of nashville and the final campaign, the last campaign has meant to tennessee, southern history and american history. 1r so thanks for coming out. it's sort of like introducing a rock star next. you have had the well known acts and the front acts. now you get a special event.n0ú
8:01 pm
damian shields is an engaging young scholar. he's an archaeologist by trade. he's an historian by emotion and2-y he gets the way you have to do those things. let's not decide objects and places don't matter, only the words someone wrote on a piece of oh paper. it all matters. it's all evidence of how history unfolded and its impact on us today. yesterday was a great pleasure of mean. i picked pupup mr. clay and we went over to stone's river national
8:02 pm
battlefield and i managed not to lose him totally in that battlefield. we kbolt over to franklin just in time it was sort of dusk. the perfect time to study a man. all of this together means we dm' have a unique opportunity to have a perspective and learn from a perspective that sometimes we don't take in here in tennessee. we do have civil war historians aplenty. sometimes you can shake a tree and a bunch fall down the. we don't get that international perspective so often. i think we are all just blessed l&!< and honored to have damien among us today. so with with no further fanfare because i know who everyone came the here -- it's not me. it's damien shields. [ applause ]
8:03 pm
good morning, everybody. i can't describe what an honor it is for me to be here. i spend all of my spare time looking at the irish and american civil war. i spend most of my original career looking at the archaeology fields and how you can preserve battlefields. for years i looked at waes gone on in the city with incredible admiration. it is an international standard to reclaim a battlefield from development.vúo
8:04 pm
i'm unaware of another example that's been successful. with somebody like patrick claiborne involved makes it more memorable for me. i have to say i have been to a number of places around the south in particular over recent months. i have never enjoyed the welcome i have had to a city over the last two days. really an incredible city and a great state that you have here. this is the ideal preparation for when you are giving a talk. when we look at history we have a temptation to simplify it. we tried to place order oh on the past. often looking at it as defining moments. each making one and another less likely. we can look at a people's lives,
8:05 pm
even our own lives in a similar way. of course history, as with life is seldom as straightforward as this. the reality tends to be more opaque, more complex, more convoluted. despite that, it's a fascinating exercise to consider what might have been the key moments in one person's life, particularly the life of a historical figure.k3ñ the moments which set them on their path to what seemed to be their ultimate destiny.l#é< i have spent a considerable amount of time studying irish immigrants impacted by the american civil bar. many breathed their last on american battlefields. this year, 150 years on oh, i have been fortunate to stand on oh some of the fields where many irish men fought. places like the bloody angle and the dead angle at kenasaw.
8:06 pm
each occasion i have traveled to battlegrounds i see eye thoughts turning to the irish who fought and died there. what were their personal stories? what became of their loved ones is this what were their life experiences which culminated in a premature death on the american battlefield? we are here today to discuss one of those men and to wonder. what were the defining moments in patrick clayburn's life. what led him from a childhood in rural county cork to the city of franklin where we are meeting here today. all of the 200,000 irish born men who fought in the american civil war, being in confederate gray or union blue shared a common experience . it was a defining moment in their lives.
8:07 pm
that experience was immigration from the country of their birth. if we want to look at what led patrick to franklin, we first have to ask what led him to emigrate. the vast majority of immigrants came from poor backgrounds and were of the catholic faith. such wasn't the case of patrick. the future major general was born on the 16th of march, 1828, a little more than 6,000 kilometers from here. in the upstairs room of this house you see on the slide. bright park cot tanl in a rural home not far to the west of cork city. his father joseph was a medical doctor from county tiperrary and his mother with was from a well to do land owning family from cove in county cork. patrick was the third of four
8:08 pm
children born to the couple. he was baptized in nearby st. mary's protestant church.q the clayburns lived a comfortable life of middle class professional family. in addition to his medical program technician, joseph was also the contract surgeon for a nearby british barracks. one of the things we often forget is that patrick grew to adulthood in ireland. he spent the vast majority of his life in ireland, not america. his experiences in the country of his birth formed his character. it is impossible for us to understand his achievements in america without first understanding his disappointments in ireland. the first of what we might term defining moments in patrick's life came 18 months into it when his mother mary anne died. his father remarried quickly, wedding isabella stewart.
8:09 pm
this was the woman patrick would refer to asthma ma for the rest of his life and would follow him to america. for now that was all in the future. after joseph's remarriage things looked bright for the family. four more siblealings joined the growing brood. dr. clay burn was an upwardly mobile man and he decided to try his hand as a land owner and a farmer. he moved his family to the nearby local manor house you can see here. one of the few buildings that's smaller now than it was then. he rented it with 206 acres. initially things went well for them. there seemed a real chance that they were set on the road to prosperity. what occurred next was one of the major factor and derped the family's emigration.
8:10 pm
on the 27th of november, 1843 dr. joseph clayburn died. he was buried in st. mary's church where he still rests. he continued to combine the practice of medicine with farming and the revenue change placed them under economic strain, much like my voice. patrick's older brother returned from college to try to manage the estate. :m soon 16-year-old pat reck was en route to north cork. it had been decided he was to follow in his father's foot steps and become a medical doctor.&$5ñ with that in mind he started as an apprentice to surgeon dr. thomas justice in a building he would have known well as a young man here. i want to turn to what is one of the most important documents when we want to look at patrick. it's these. the ledger entry records events reare lating to what with i think are the key formative experience in patrick's early life.
8:11 pm
these are from the apothecary hall in dublin. in 1845 patrick applied to the city exams he needed to begin medical studies. he was rejected but told to try again the following year. he did try. in early 1846 he sat the exam. though doubt hoping and probably expecting to set out on a path that would lead to security and comfort in the years x[fz29ñ but he failed. that failure altered the course of his life. if the 17-year-old patrick clay burn had entered the apothecary's hall in 1846 it is unlikely his life would have led him to franklin and that we would be discussing him. these moments are fascinating. as it was, the young man was mortified by the failure and was unwilling to return home to cork. he was too ashamed to face his family. instead he made the decision to enlist.
8:12 pm
a decision he ultimately regretted. more than a year passed in the or pi without anybody hearing from him. he never wrote home, nothing. disappeared until a family friend and officer recognized anymore the ranks and informed his loved ones of his whereabouts. by now the year was 1847. a great irish famine was at its height. private clayburn witnessed dreadful sights as he moved around the country, helping to keep peace.ód3+v during those years, hunger and poverty forced many irish families to the emigrant boat. although unaware at the time, patrick would see some of them again, many wearing union and confederate uniforms on the other side of the atlantic more than a decade later. the famine killed hundreds of thousands of the poor but had a heavy impact on struggling land own owners.
8:13 pm
ever increasing rents and poor returns for produce forced patrick's pa ma to consider emigrating to america. patrick, eager to escape a life which had thus far offered only disappointment volunteered to lead the way. he succeeded in buying his discharge from the army for 20 pounds in september 1849 and then wasted little time. by november he was en route to new orleans where the 21-year-old landed along with three siblings on christmas day. 21, a grown man. it is an kpanl radiation to say america proved the land of opportunity for patrick. his education, religion and finances placed him in a better position to exploit it than many of his poorer catholic counterparts but much hard work lay ahead. what america gave him was a chance to reset his life.
8:14 pm
had he remained in ireland, his future may have forever been defined by his failed apothecary hall exam. in the united states a more flexible society offered the chance to undo past failings. this was an opportunity he took with both hands. after a a brief period in cincinnati he arrived in helena, arkansas in 1850. over the course of the next decade he grew from a drugstore prescriptionist into a major community leader. by the end of 1851 he graduated into drugstore owner and began with membership of the masonic lodge in 1852.g!réú he decided to study law. by 1855 he had become heavily involved in local politics. he was particularly active in efforts to prevent the american party, an anti-immigrant party referred to agx93s o-nothings from gaining a foothold in
8:15 pm
helena. he became firm friends with a democratic politician, thomas c. hienman, later a confederate general. the two ran a paper together called the states right democrat. i think this illustrates how closely his views aligned with vt(ds those of his friends and neighbors in arkansas. his association nearly got him killed in may 1856 when a politically motivated shoot out aimed at hienman left one man dead -- clayburn shot him and clayburn clinging to life with a bullet in the chest. as hienman went to congress clayburn focused on the law and business ventures. in 1860 his military experience and social position saw him elected captain of the yell
8:16 pm
rifles. with arkansas's secession from the union the stage was set for the last three and a half years of patrick's life. the last three and a half years. that's what we know him for. years which would immortalize him. the irish fought for the north and south during the american civil war and did so for myriad reasons. some enlisted to preserve the union or on the basis of states rights. many did so for economic reasons, to take advantage of consistent pay and potential bounties. it was an irish tradition to do that. others felt -- become part of american society. a large number fought for the preservation of society and that of their friends.
8:17 pm
arkansas provided cleburne with something he never had in ireland -- a community of oh which he felt a part. a place that was filled with his friends and somewhere that he could call home. when patrick cleburne went to war in 1861 he went to war for arkansas. he was more than willing to die for arkansas. by the time patrick cleburne surveyed the scene that awaited him and his men at franklin on the 30th of november 1864 he was a major general.aeé6ké commanding what was perhaps the most famed division in the western theater. he'd risen from captain of the l rifles to colonel of the 15th arkansas. commanded a brigade at shiloh and led the division.
8:18 pm
famed for his reliability, coolness under pressure and fighting qualities, cleburne and his men were the go-to division of the army of tennessee, as demonstrated by actions in georgia in 1863 when they saved the army following the debacle at missionary ridge. an action for which cleburne would later earn the thanks of confederate congress. by the time he came to franklin it was a year in the past and the army lost more as a result of the campaign. that year had seen the prospects of ultimate confederate success dwindle to a flicker. franklin provideded them with their greatest challenge.ñbw when he topped winstead hill outside the town that november afternoon cleburne dismounted from his horse and, resting his field glasses on a stump he surveyed the positions. he took in the impressive enemy
8:19 pm
works thrown up by the yankees. he replaced his glasses and said aloud to nobody in particular, they are very formidable. the these events are linked with those that occurred after the south on a previous day. there was a golden opportunity to trap a significant portion of general scofield's force. having left steven lee to occupy in columbia. from where they converge ed in the rear and threatened the federal line retreat to nashville. the real possibility has presented itself.
8:20 pm
all of it appeared necessary for confederate ares to cut the cheatham's core of which the division played a prominent role in the fight for spring hill. in one of the most inexplicable failures of the war and we can see how close it came behind us. when the fighting petered out the vital franklin turnpike remained untaken. despite the fact that thousands of rebels went to camp only yards from it. through the night, union troops that should have been trapped south of spring hill marched north past sleeping confederates to franklin. in later years, union soldiers would remember passing within plain view of the rebels. one recalling thousands burping brightly. we could see them moving around. nobody was more aware. in his words, that was a great
8:21 pm
opportunity of striking the enemy for which we labored so long. the greatest this campaign offered and one of the greatest of the war. the confederates awoke on the 30th of november to find the enemy gone.#dç just who was to blame for the failure is a topic that continues to generate debate. there is little doubt as they moved toward franklin the events played on the minds of many confederate generals. in the 150 years since the battle, many speculated as to patrick cleburne's state of mind that 30th of november day. his fellow division commander, general john c. brown recalled during the march that cleburne asked to see him. riding into the fields alongside to talk. describing how cleburne was angry and deeply hurt. the irish man had been told
8:22 pm
there was a failure at spring hill the previous day. he could not afford to rest under and intended to have the matter fully investigated. brown recalled asking cleburne who he felt responsible for the failure. cleburne placing ultimate culpability at the feet of his commander in chief. a counter point to the mind set has been put forward. primarily based on recently discovered personal papers written by former army steven d. lee. it recounts a conversation with general a.p. stewart. stewart heard on the 30th of oh november. he felt remorse for failure at spring hill. due to the decision not to launch an attack there on the 29th. stewart believed, and i quote immediately afterwards and said
8:23 pm
no such wait should be on his mind. in that feeling lost soon afterwards. brown's and lee's accounts have to be treated with a degree of caution. both were written after the war in the context of an acrimony use dispute as to who was to blame for the events at spring mill. suffice it to say whatever cleburne felt he must undoubtedly have been disappointed and angry at the chance missed.]%÷ as he surveyed the fortified union positions from winstead hill that disappointment must have been magnified. as cleburne waited for the troops to arrive that day, he whiled away the time with@5umuz of checkers with a member of his
8:24 pm
staff. the last down time of his life. the general gathered different colored leaves to use for gaming pieces. it wasn't long before he was ordered to the headquarters at the harrison house.oxjñ along with a number of others he expressed reservations about the proposed attack at franklin. telling hood it would be a terrible and useless waste of life. however, hood determined the assault should go ahead. the commander instructed cleburne to form his division to the right of the columbia turnpike and to charge the works. the irish man replied, general, i will take the works or fall in the effort before riding off toward his men. the position assigned to cleburne's division on the right or east side of the columbia turnpike saw them aimed at a portion of the federal works dominated by a cotton gin owned by the carter family.tíx cleburne requested his decision
8:25 pm
be allowed to advance to reduce exposure across the open ground before deploying into line of battle for the final assault. cleburne held a final meeting with his commanders atop breezy hill to outline what was expected of them. one of them daniel c. goven reel called this meeting years later. i quote. general cleburne seemed to be more despondent than i ever saw him. i was the last one to receive instructions from him. as i saluteded and bade him good-bye i remarked, well, general, not many of us will get back to arkansas. he replied. well, if we are to die, let us die like men. cleburne left the meeting and v rode forward to some of his advanced sharp shooters on a rise called the private knob. taking one of the scopes he surveyed the union works.
8:26 pm
he took a long look across the field before remarking they have three lines of works. his eyes swept back across the federal position before he added, they are all completed. he was soon thundering back down the pike to his forming division.%#ñ around 4:00 p.m. on the 30th of november with bands playing and :[y flags fluttering, almost 20,000 men of the confederate army of tennessee swung forward into the>h attack at franklin. they made for an awesome site. among them was the figure of patrick cleburne wearing a new uniform jacket, white linen shirt. he was mounted on the borrowed horse as his regular animal red & : uá $u$e previous day at spring hill. riding forward into action it seemed that, as promised, he was determined to lead by example ir and take his men over to federalr
8:27 pm
í works. success for the advancing rebels should have been sliced, a grievous error committed by general george wagner handed him an opportunity. wagner left two of his brigades exposed half a mile beyond the main federal line. they were too small a force to stem the confederate assault. with the army of tennessee hit them the position crumbled. as wagner's men turned and ran for franklin, cleburne's soldiers sought to chase after and followed them into the main line of works. captain sam foster of cleburne's division described how the union men would, and i quote, fire a few shots and break to a run. as soon as they break to run, our men break after them. they have nearly half a mile to get back to the next line. here we go right after them. yelling like fury and shooting at them at the same time.
8:28 pm
kill some of them before they reached their works. those in the second line of works aren't able to shoot us. because of the men in front of us, between us and them. although cleburne and the men were shielded by fleeing troops. eventually the federal and main line had to open fire. for those caught in it, be it union or confederate, the result was the same. by this time, cleburne crossed wagner's advanced position and was headed p for the main line when he was catapulted from the horse. with the fire intensifying one of the kour ohhiers left his mount and offered it to the general. as cleburne put his foot in the stirrup, a cannon ball plowed into the animal. the courier went down, his side shattered by a bullet. cleburne pressed on. general goven caught site of him
8:29 pm
plunging forward on foot, waving his cap in encouragement before he disappeared into the smoke of battle.yñ6 it was the last time he ever saw him. many of oh cleburne's men did reach the main line. he was intermingled with those from other units as a deadly struggle reached the crescendo. patrick cleburne was though longer with them. when the fighting ceased in the darkness, rumors began to circulate in the army of tennessee that cleburne had not survived. the federal withdrawal during the night left the battlefield in confederate hands and the next morning the full scale of the previous days horrors was revealed. john mcquaid was out oh early, looking for the general. here he describes what he found not too far from the cotton gin. he was about 40 or 50 yards from the works. he lay flat on his back as if asleep.
8:30 pm
his military cap over his eyes. he had a new uniform.xp&çx it was unbuttoned and open. the lower part of the vest was unbuttoned and open. he wore a white linen shirt stained with blood on the front part of the left side or just left of the abdomen. this was the only sign of a wound i i saw on him. i believe it is the only one he received. i have always been inclined to think feeling the end was near he laid himself down to die. or his body was carried there during the night. he was in his sock feet. his boots having been stolen. his watch, belt and other valuables gone. his body having been robbed during the night. cleburne's body was placed in an ambulance alongside that of general john adams who had also fallen. the two were taken to the house where they were placed on the
8:31 pm
back porch. they were joined there by the bodieses of four officers including two more generals. the battle of franklin was over. it was an engagement that destroyed the army of tennessee. after just 36 years it ended patrick cleburne's life. since the battle of franklin people speculated as to reasons behind cleburne's actions that day. why did he choose to place himself so far forward when he could have chosen to direct operations further back. spring hill and the determination to show john bell hood is worth or an effort to lmk;x redeem himself due to remorse from personal failings the day before. it's probable we'll never know the answer to that. then again, perhaps such speck elations are of secondary importance.
8:32 pm
it's worth considering that patrick cleburne placed himself in dangerous conditions on the battle field . his devotion to the cause was absolute. it was a cause he accepted had been at serious risk since the winter of 1863. in october of oh 1864, cleburne remarked and i quote, if this cause that is so dear to my heart is doom to fail i pray heaven may let me fall with it while my face is toward the en my and my arm battling for that which i know to be right. as irving buck later stated by november of 1864 anyone above the degree of idiocy must have known the chances were desperate. patrick cleburne was no idiot. at spring hill he witnessed the army of tennessee's last best p hope evaporate.
8:33 pm
once the orders were given to attack at franklin, he decided to roll the dice one more time. perhaps hoping the courage and devotion might win the day. given these circumstances and cleburne's character perhaps what would have been truly remarkable is that cleburne survived at franklin. patrick cleburne was far from the only man with links to ireland on the field at franklin that day though. one of the men who lay beside him on the back porch brigadier general john adams with whom he shared the ambulance was the son of an immigrant. irish and irish-americans were to be found spread throughout both or a mys. like cleburne for many the 30th of november 1864 would be their last day. but before it had begun some oy rich men found time for humor, a
8:34 pm
particularly irish trait in these situations, i think. the breathtaking sight of the confederate forces that afternoon led a rebel to recall nelson's words before trafalgar. england expects every man to do his duty.[r sergeantle callahan of the first missouri quippeded back, over this irish crowd.( deny and his comrades are part of the missouri brigade, frenchs division which initially advanced to the right of cleburne. by day's end they would have the dubious honor of having sustained the highest casualties of any brigade in the army. one was deny callahan cut down in the act of planting the regimen tall colors and taken prisoner. another was patrick kniff leading into the male strom on horse back.
8:35 pm
he took a bullet to the right shoulder, knocking him from his mount. before he could get up a second projectile ripped through the top of his head, exploding out through his chin. his body was found the next horning lying near his horse. today, patrick kniff is one of those in the mcgavin cemetery. he shares that with a number of other irish and irish americans. men like thomas lindsay mo rel of the 6 tennessee who would attack the union works on the other side of the columbia turn bike. part of the browns division. thomas was the tennessee born son of irish immigrant james mo rel of countiderry. in some respects, men like the lucky ones. for many fallen confederate irish men like martin fleming from nashville who advanced on the confederate left there will be no known grave.
8:36 pm
one of the regiments that charged in that day, had an affinity to the general. as many of the number shared the country of birth. the fifth confederate infantry consisted largely of memphis irish men having been formed by the 21st tennessee infantry. their particular claim to fame was it was corporal coleman of the regiment credited with shooting general skbrams mcpherson outside atlanta on the 22nd of july 1864ment the same day their color at a tennessee state museum was captured. one of oh their number recalled how the men of the regiment hero worshipped cleburne. a devotion described as amounting almost to idolotry. they were able to record that at franklin, cleburne sought out the regiment, charged if with it and died with it.
8:37 pm
another of those who died was dick cattle. his body was found in the morning of the first of december, ten feet inside the union works near the cotton gin, punctured by four bayonet wounds. just as it was, franklin impacted many who fought for the union. the records that survived for (-eujup&low us to paint a picture of the impact of battle on those left behind.=8c1q take, for example, some of the men of the 72nd illinois. part of strickland's brigade who faced james mo rel and other confederates of brown's division to the west of the columbia turnpike. the 72nd initially manned the main line of works near the
8:38 pm
house before being forced back to the retrench line. one of their number was john flannery of company c. like so many others he was never heard from again after franklin. his mess mate william dehaven would later recall how he had seen his friend in the works =uh$÷ before they with drew in the face of confederate attack. it was the last time he would ever see him. flannery was never reported as a prisoner. dehaven said he had no doubt disposed of in some way by the enemy. john flq+fle at franklin must have been hard to bear for his mother ell beardstown, illinois. her loss is brought spo sharp focus when we consider ellen's husband died before the war. she was re leinart on john and the brother michael to support the children. hikele was the member of the 28th illinois and he was killed in jackson, mississippi. now franklin robbed her of not
8:39 pm
only the second son but also her economic security. some other 72nd illinois soldiers who endured the fighting at franklin had almost certainly born witness to another great trauma in their lives. that of famine. many of the irisçx[ i áuu in the american civil war emigrated during the years of the great famine between 1845 and 1852. we know michael nugent witnessed> it as he was in dublin in 1848 the year he married this the inner city. this is the marriage certificate. he emigrateded to chicago. presumably in the hope of a better life. little then could he have imagined that life would end near the carter house in november of oh 1864. john curry served in company k of the 72nd illinois.
8:40 pm
unlike many other irish emigrants in the 1840s, he landed in north america via canada. it was in canada in 1848 he married ellen driscoll and their first child was born. they moved to illinois before john enlisted in the 72nd and was killed in action at franklin. by 1864, ellen, now widowed, had five minor children to support. unsurprisingly it wasn't long zk6v security of another marriage. we often forget they were responsible for men's deaths long after guns stopped firing. many unfortunates lingered for weeks, months and years with wounds they sustained. for others it was the captured who signed their death warrant. one was michael oh bryant. an irish man who enlisted from lebanon, ohio. franklin was his first fight. michael was a member of company g who were in front of the main work.
8:41 pm
taking prisoner with six others he would later contract diarrhea.3iñb lñ eventually dying during the night under the blanket beside a friend in tupelo, mississippi, in january of 1865. he left a widow and four children. there were many american born sons fighting for the union at franklin..fja
8:42 pm
perhaps one of the most notable is this man. lieutenant james coughlin of the 24th kentucky and a favored aid to general jay cob cox. he was not far from the cotton gin. james's irish born parents back in paris, kentucky, must have been devastateded by the news of the 21-year-old's death. his father john was disabled for years and unable to work. he and his wife relied on james for everything. james's sister remembered he always made sure his parents had tea, coffee, sugar, flour, meat, clothing, fuel and the other necessaries of life. now they had both his companionship and support. how the families of the men killed at franklin reacted to lhé news of their loved ones' death is often lost to history and to us. one are reaction that's recorded is that of susan tarlton of mobile, alabama, patrick cleburne's fiancee. she was walking in her garden when she overheard a thuspaper boy cry out news of the battle and report cleburne's death. over come with grief she would wear mourning clothes for a year. cleburne's body was initially 3-coy briefly interned in rose hill cemetery columbia on the second of december before being moved
8:43 pm
to ashwood cemetery. a burial ground cleburne passed a few days earlier remarking then that it was almost worth dying for to be buried in such a beautiful spot.tf8 the irish general was hoved for the last time in 1870 when his body was brought back to helena where it rests in maple hill cemetery, no doubt as he would z want it. jefferson davis called patrick cleburne the stonewall of of the west. robert e. lee said he was a meteor shining from a clouded sky. as with many historical figures his premature death fighting for a cause he believed in helped cement his image in popular hajj nation.q8cwo some who knew him like charles nash and irving buck wrote books about him.
8:44 pm
veterans of the division in texas would name a town in his 'd honor where now almost 30,000 people lived. a county in alabama was named for him as was with one in arkansas in 1833. the confederate cemetery in georgia bears his name. his level of popularity waned in the middle of the 20th century. in 1973 howard and elizabeth perdue published the first major published study of him in almost today, patrick cleburne is just 0pcç as famous for a proposal he made on the second of january, 1864 as he is for his fighting zçñ prowess.2jc-e a situation that's perhaps reflective of changing attitudes to the conflict.
8:45 pm
this proposal was made at all is only known because of a chance 1880s discovery of the only surviving copy as during the war it was ordered suppressed. in it, cleburne suggested arming slaves to fight for the confederacy in return for their @ zpk freedom. he posited that between the loss of independence and the loss of slavery we assumed every patriot would give up the negro slaves rather than be a slai himself. given the outraged reaction to the proposal by some generals like william b. bass, william h.t. walker and patton anderson this was clearly not the case. cleburne made his proposal based purely on the practicalities of the north's numerical advantages, rather tan a deep seated desire to seek emancipation. perhaps more than anything else, what the proposal tells us is it is a reminder that cleburne spent the first 21 years of his life in ireland.
8:46 pm
by 1864 he still had a ways to go before he understood the south.zn it's been debated whether or not the proposal prevented him from achieving higher command in the army of tennessee. if it did have a negative impact during his own lifetime, that's not the case in ours. last february saw the museum of the confederaies person of the year symposium which was decided by audience vote following talks on each of the nominated figures by noted scholars. unsurprisingly given the year sherman came out on top, he was followed by cleburne who garnered more votes than lincoln oh, lee or grantment it's inconceivable that the irish man would have finished in this decision were it not for his proposal to armed slaves. there is no denying that cleburne often found himself center stage.+m,f
8:47 pm
he's been the subject of a number of recent biographies, -:"d had a statue erecteded in his honor and of course was recognized in the continuing efforts to reclaim the franklin battlefield. what of patrick cleburne's memory in ireland. shortly after the general's death, while he lay in a coffin awaiting interment a woman namedi/d÷l naomi hayes read a play on his casket describing hower rand's land sends forth a whale on erring news of the corkman's death. unfortunately, the reality is far from sending forth a wale, patrick cleburne is relatively unknown in ireland.zbl÷ñ a plaque was placed on the house of his birth by visiting americans.z 6] z although in more recent years a housing development has been f#hói
8:48 pm
named cleburne muse and some artifacts related to the general which were lent from the u.s. also featured in a major national museum of ireland military exhibition. beyond this, cleburne along with the other 200,000 irish born men and indeed countless thousands of irish americans on top of "vvu that who fought in the civil war remained largely forgotten in v ireland despite the fact that along with world war i the american civil war represents ireland's largest conflict in history when it comes to the 06çn . numbers of men who served. that's important from an international dimension. if you tq!d ireland it is the largest ward we have ever fought in. the american civil war. it gives you a flavor of the international context. in ireland there's been no major expiration of the role of irish people in the conflict.
8:49 pm
we have no national memorial to those emigrants who suffered as a result of the american civil war. during the course of the entire ses question centennial events we had not a single conference to discuss irish involvement in the conflict. my country's failure to remember the immigrants is something that's hopefully set to change. during an address in new orleans last week the irish minister, the equivalent of a secretary of state for our heritage specifically referenced the experiences of the irish 7@$e american civil war. for the first time officially highlighted those people that i have come to refer to as the forgotten irish. thankfully thankfully, though they are most certainly not forgotten movrns. nye are known by those people in
8:50 pm
the nation they becameá all those years ago. as an irish person, i would like to extend my gratitude to you all for that the, and forúu!ií the privilege of speaking to you about one ofw[ o and we'd like to tell you 3dvdy about some of other american history tv programs. join us every saturday at 6:00 p.m. and 10:00 p.m. eastern, for a special look at the civil war. we'll bring you to the battlefields. we'll let you hear from scholars and re-enactors and bring you yj the latest historical forms on the subject. again, that's programs on the civil war every saturday from 6:00 and 10 p.m. on c-span3. american history tv. new year's day on the c-span networks, here are some of our featured programs.


info Stream Only

Uploaded by TV Archive on